Waterflood Optimization

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Who should attend?

Reservoir engineers, EOR engineers, production engineers, petroleum engineers, geologists, project engineers, project managers and anyone else who is in need of a good understanding of waterflood.

About the course

This five-day course will cover various aspects of waterflood theory, diagnostics, planning, evaluation and analysis. Both analytic and numerical techniques to evaluate waterflood will be presented. The method of teaching will be a combination of slides, discussions and hands-on practice problems. Students will benefit from the presentation of actual results of instituted waterfloods around the world. The course assumes students to have basic knowledge of waterflood, some experience in oil-field operations and familiarity with functions of Excel ™ and Windows™ based software.

You will learn

  • Learn factors affecting successful institution of waterflood
  • Understand how to design, predict and monitor waterflood
  • Understand what are the different analytic and numerical techniques to predict waterflood recovery considering the important aspects of the drive mechanisms
  • Learn various diagnostics and quantitative techniques to perform waterflood surveillance and re-balancing
  • Learn special considerations of waterflood e.g. remediate excessive water production by water shutoff and/or profile modification, improving sweep efficiency, polymer augmented waterflood, LoSal (low salinity) waterflood, reservoir souring.

Course content

  • Wettability, imbibitions, drainage concepts, capillary pressure, J-function, height above free water level air permeability, absolute permeability, effective permeability, relative permeability porosity-permeability cutoffs, net pay cutoff determination, rock continuity and floodable pay
  • Vertical permeability variation, areal permeability variation, detection of stratification, selection of layers, Dykstra-Parsons coefficient, Lorentz coefficient, effect of cross flow, vertical sweep efficiency
  • Need for waterflood patterns and selection criteria
  • Frontal Advance theory, Water Tonguing, Viscous Fingering, Application of fractional flow, influence of rock wettability on oil production performance, influence of viscosities, influence of formation dip, initial gas saturation
  • Influence of Mobility ratio, gravity forces, capillary forces
  • Mathematical representation of two/three phase systems of transport equations associated with the various constitutive laws for closure
  • How to set up a reservoir model to initiate waterflood evaluation
  • Rate of Change of Watercut-cumulative production
  • Injection plots, Hall/Modified Hall plots, injectivity loss calculation, step rate test
  • Swept volume calculation to determine water shut off or profile modification treatment volumes
  • Capacitance Resistance Modeling
  • LoSal waterflood
  • Polymer augmented waterflood
  • Case studies of various successful waterfloods

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