Surface Facilities and Production Operations

Code Date Venue Fee ($)

Course Objectives

Upon the successful completion of this course, each participant will be able to:-

  • Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on the surface production facilities in the oil and gas industry
  • Discuss  the function, operation and equipment of the wellhead tower as well as the purpose of the production manifold
  • Carryout the processes involved in the separation of oil, gas and water
  • Improve knowledge on oil and gas production streams, their flows and pressures
  • Demonstrate the latest methodology of controlling flow, pressure and temperature
  • Identify the types and purpose of production equipment and develop an understanding in water and gas injection technology
  • Apply knowledge on process troubleshooting

Who Should Attend

The course is recommended for production personnel and other staff who want to increase their understanding of the oil & gas production & operation.

Course content

Day 1

·         Introduction

·         Making the Equipment Work

·         Facility Types

Choosing a Process

·         Introduction

·         Controlling the Process

o   Operation of a Control Valve

o   Pressure Control

o   Level Control, Temperature Control, Flow Control

·         Basic System Configuration

o   Wellhead and Manifold, Separation, Oil Treating

o   Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT), Pumps

o   Water Treating, Compressors, Gas Dehydrators

·         Well Testing

·         Gas Lift

·         Offshore Platform Considerations

o   Overview, Modular Construction

o   Equipment Arrangement

Fluid Properties

·         Introduction

·         Basic Principles

o   Specific Gravity and Density, Viscosity

·         Flash Calculations

·         Characterizing the Flow Stream

o   Molecular Weight of Gas, Gas Flow Rate

o   Liquid Molecular Weight, Specific Gravity of Liquid, Liquid Flow Rate, the Flow Stream

·         Approximate Flash Calculations

·         Other Properties

Day 2

Two-Phase Oil and Gas Separation

·         Introduction

·         Factors Affecting Separation

·         Equipment Description

o   Horizontal Separators, Vertical Separators

o   Spherical Separators, Other Configurations

o   Scrubbers

·         Horizontal vs. Vertical Vessel Selection

·         Vessel Internals

o   Inlet Diverters, Wave Breakers, Defoaming Plates

o   Vortex Breaker, Mist Extractor

·         Potential Operating Problems

o   Foamy Crudes, Paraffin, Sand

o   Liquid Carryover and Gas Blowby

·         Theory

o   Settling, Drop Size, Retention Time

o   Re-entrainment

·         Separator Sizing

o   Horizontal Separators, Procedure for Sizing Horizontal Separators, Vertical Separators

·         Examples

o   Sizing a Vertical Separator

o   Sizing a Horizontal Separator

Day 3

Oil and Water Separation

·         Introduction

·         Equipment Description

o   Horizontal Separators, Vertical Separators

o   Horizontal vs. Vertical Selection

·         Vessel Internals

o   Coalescing Plates, Sand Jets and Drains

·         Emulsions

·         Theory

o   Gas Separation, Oil/Water Settling

o   Water Droplet Size in Oil, Oil Droplet Size in Water

o   Retention Time

·         Separator Sizing

o   Horizontal Separators , Settling Equation

o   Vertical Separators

·         Examples

o   Sizing a Vertical Three-Phase Separator

o   Sizing a Horizontal Three-Phase Separator


Crude Oil Treating Systems            

·         Introduction

·         Emulsion Treating Theory

o   Forming Emulsions, Emulsifying Agent

o   Demulsifiers

·         Gravity Separation

o   Coalescence, Viscosity, Temperature Effects

o   Heat Input Equations, Water Droplet Size and Retention

o   Time, Coalescing Media, Electrostatic Coalescers

·         Treating Equipment

o   Vertical Treaters, Horizontal Treaters

o   Electrostatic Treaters

·         Equipment Sizing and Theory

o   Settling Equations, Retention Time Equations,

o   Water Droplet Size

·         Design Procedure

·         Examples

o   Sizing a Horizontal Treater, Sizing a Vertical Treater

Day 4

Produced-Water Treating Systems

·         Introduction

·         System Description

·         Theory

o   Gravity Separation, Dispersion, Coalescence

o   Flotation

·         Treating Equipment

o   Settling Tanks and Skimmer Vessels

o   Skimmer Sizing Equations, Plate Coalescers

o   Skimmer/Coalescers, Precipitators/Coalescing Filters

o   Free-Flow Turbulent Coalescers (SP Packs)

o   Flotation Units, Hydrocyclones, Disposal Piles

o   Skim Pile

·         Drain Systems

·         Information Required for Design

·         Influent Water Quality

o   Produced Water, Soluble Oil, Deck Drainage

·         Equipment Selection Procedure

·         Equipment Specification

·         Example: Design the Produced-Water Treating System for the Data Given


Pressure Drop in Piping

·         Introduction

·         Basic Principles

o   Reynolds Number, Flow Regimes

o   Bernoulli’s Theorem, Darcy’s Equation

o   Moody Friction Factor

·         Fluid Flow Equations,

o   Liquid Flow, Gas Flow, Two-Phase Flow

·         Head Loss in Valves and Pipe Fittings

o   Resistance Coefficients, Flow Coefficient

o   Equivalent Length, Laminar Flow Coefficient

·         Example Pressure Drop Calculations

o   Pressure Drop in Liquid Line

o   Pressure Drop in Gas Line,

o   Pressure Drop in Two-Phase Line

Choosing a Line Size and Wall Thickness

·         Introduction

·         Line Size Criteria

o   Erosional Flow, Liquid Lines, Gas Lines

o   Two-Phase Flow

·         Wall Thickness Criteria

o   Standards and Requirements, General Hoop Stress

o   Formula for Thin Wall Cylinders

·         Pressure Rating Classes

o   Industry Standards, API 6A

o   Pipe, Valve, and Fitting Specifications

·         Examples

o   Liquid Line, Gas Line, Two-Phase Line

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