Seismic Data Acquisition & Processing for Oil & Gas Exploration

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The main objective of this course is to provide Exploration & Development professionals with the opportunity to develop hands-on experience of various Seismic Data Acquisition & Processing techniques. It will cover all Seismic acquisition and processing approaches from fundamental theoretical background to high-level real work information/techniques.

How will this Training Course be Presented?

The course will not only presented by showing and interpreting the material in detail, but also the participants will work together using a real Seismic data to apply all the workflow and to project their previous knowledge and experience onto the course, they also encouraged to bring their own data so that real working examples can be reviewed and interpreted.


Target Audience

This course is designed for all Oil industry Technical Professionals, which will cover from fundamental theoretical background to high-level real work information/ techniques.


This training course is suitable to a wide range of professionals but will greatly benefit:

  • Seismic Interpreters
  • Geophysicists
  • Geologists
  • Geo-Modelers
  • Petrophysicists
  • Drilling Engineers
  • Reservoir Engineers
  • Technical Support Personnel
  • Team Leaders
  • Managers


Course Agenda

Module One: Seismic Signals.

·       Introduction.

·       Fundamentals of Seismic Data.

o   Field Work, Processing and Interpretation.

o   Geological Risks and Uncertainties.

o   Reflection and the Seismic Section.

o   Seismic Risks and Uncertainties.

o   Seismic Sections Example.

·       Geological Messages in the Seismic Trace.

o   Seismic & Geology.

o   Forward Modeling.

o   Rock Properties.

o   Seismic Measurements & Geology.

o   Seismic Reflection Patterns & Geology.

·       Seismic Signal Analysis Theory.

o   Waveforms.

o   Operators.

o   Noise.

o   Correlation Techniques.

o   Nonlinearity & Distortion.

o   Digital Representation of Waveforms.

·       Seismic Pulse Generation & Transmission.

o   Plane Compressional Waves.

o   Spherical Compressional Waves.

o   Physical Description of the Seismic Method.

o   Density & Velocity.

o   Losses.

o   Source Signature.

o   Seismic Pulses Components.

o   Shear & Surface Waves.

·       Seismic Reflection.

o   Reflection and Transmission.

o   Multiple Reflection.

o   Curved and Discontinuous Reflectors.

o   Seismic Response of a Layer.

o   Short Path Multiples.

o   Geological Meaning of Reflectors.

o   Saturant Effects.

Module Two: Field Work.

·       Introduction to Field Work.

o   Defining Survey Objectives.

o   Improving the Signal-to-Noise Ratio.

o   Ambient Noise Reduction.

o   Coherent Noise Reduction.

o   Scattered Noise Reduction.

o   Arrays and Group.

o   Ghost Reflections.

o   Multiple Coverage in Action.

o   Multiple Coverage Assumptions.

o   2D Coverage.

o   3D Coverage.

o   Recording Instruments.

o   Station Selection.

o   Amplification.

o   Fine Tuning the Signal.

o   Equipment Testing.

o   The Total System.

o   The Land Seismic Source.

o   Explosive Sources.

o   Non Explosive Sources.

o   The Land Seismic Receiver.

o   The Seismic Record.

o   Acquisition Constraints.

o   Marine Work.

o   Typical Seismic Vessel Specifications.

o   Marine Seismic Source.

o   Water Gun Operation & Specs.

o   Sources Signatures.

o   The Transition Zone.

o   Multi-Component Data.

o   Organization of the Field Crew.

o   Safety Management.

o   The Location of Seismic Lines.

o   The Observer & Reports.

Module Three: Surveying & Positioning.

·       Surveying and Mapping.

o   Objectives and Requirements.

o   The Figure and Rotation of the Earth.

o   Frames of Reference.

o   Surveying Methods.

o   Surveying in Practice.

o   Satellite Positioning Methods.

·       Positioning and Mapping.

o   Towed Streamer Acquisition.

o   Satellite Positioning Systems.

o   Secondary Positioning Systems.

o   Positioning Systems Calibration.

o   Definitions Controls and Checks.

o   Navigation Data.

o   Navigation QC and Reporting.

o   Additional Exploration Positioning Requirements.

o   New Developments.

o   Supplemental Information.

Module Four: Coverage & Array Design.

·       Multiple Coverage.

o   The Development of Multiple Coverage.

o   The Benefits and Limitations of Multiple Coverage.

o   The Surface Diagram.

o   Multiple Coverage at Sea.

o   Multiple Coverage on Land.

o   Common-midpoint Stacking.

o   Migration and Multiple Coverage.

o   Vertical Seismic Profiling.

·       Array Design.

o   Introduction to Array Design.

o   Factors Affecting Group Dimensions.

o   Approaches to Array Design.

o   Traditional Array Design.

o   Field Tests Measuring Source Generated Noise.

o   A Universal Approach to Acquisition.

o   Arrays in 3D.

o   Arrays at Sea.

Module Five: Multicomponent Seismic Applications.

·       Multicomponent Seismic Applications.

o   P and S wave.

o   Exploration Value.

o   The Value of P and S wave Data.

o   Predict Fractures.

o   Improved Structural Image.

o   Predicting Fluid Type.

o   Wave Propagation.

o   Shear Wave Splitting.

o   Velocity and Rock Properties.

o   Conversion.

o   Reflection and Refraction.

o   Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO).

o   Shear Source Shear Receiver.

o   Polarity Convention.

o   Bandwidth.

o   Compression Source Compression Receiver.

o   Compression Source Shear Receiver.

o   Processing Overview.

o   Interpretation Overview.

Module Six: Basic Seismic Data Processing.

·       Basic Seismic Processing.

o   Basic Processing Overview.

o   Objectives of Seismic Processing.

o   Basic Seismic Processing Sequence.

o   The Utility of CMP Data.

o   Frequency Filtering.

o   Pre-Processing and Deconvolution.

o   Data Loading and Demultiplexing.

o   Trace Editing.

o   Gain Recovery and Trace Equalization.

o   Datum Corrections.

o   Stacking and Velocity Analysis.

o   CMP Sorting.

o   Normal Move-out Correction.

o   Multiple Attenuation Dereverberation.

o   Migration and Post-Processes.

o   Display.

·       Initial Processes.

o   Field Data.

o   SEG Seismic Field Recording Format (SEG-D).

o   SEG Seismic Trade Format (SEG-Y).

o   The Observer Report and Field Notes.

o   Pre-Processing Flow.

o   Gain Recovery.

o   De-Multiplexing.

o   Re-Sampling.

o   Assigning Geometry.

o   Datum Corrections.

o   Amplitude Adjustment.

o   Common Midpoint Gather.

o   Common Offset Gather.

o   Practical Considerations.

·       Seismic Velocities.

o   Influencing Factors.

o   Seismic Velocities Definition.

o   Normal Move-out (NMO).

o   NMO for Dipping Layer.

o   Stacking Velocities.

o   Instantaneous Interval and Average Velocities.

o   NMO Stretching.

o   Velocity Analysis.

o   Practical Considerations for Velocity Analysis.

o   Interpreting and Refining the Velocity Model.

o   Picking and Verifying the Velocities.

o   Residual NMO Analysis.

o   Harmonizing Stacking and Well Survey Velocities.

o   Dip Move-out (DMO).

o   Additional Technologies.

o   Velocity Analysis for Anisotropic Media.

o   Tomographic Velocity Analysis.

o   Migration Velocity Analysis.


Module Seven: Static Corrections & Deconvolution.

·       Static Corrections.

o   Basic Concept.

o   Recording Considerations.

o   Static Effects on the Stack.

o   Interpretive Considerations in Statics.

o   Long Wavelength Statics.

o   Choosing a Seismic Datum.

o   Deterministic Techniques for Deriving the Near Surface Velocity Models.

o   Tomography Statics.

o   Short Wavelength Statics (Residual Static).

o   Cross Correlation Methods.

o   Cross-Dip Corrections and 3-D Statics.

o   Layer Replacement Techniques.

o   Wave Equation Datuming.

·       Deconvolution.

o   Basic Concepts.

o   Deconvolution in Theory.

o   Deconvolution Parameters.

o   Single-Trace Statistical Deconvolution.

o   Spiking Deconvolution.

o   Zero-Phase Deconvolution.

o   Deterministic Methods.

o   Multi-Trace Deconvolution.

o   Shot Deconvolution.

o   Surface-Consistent Deconvolution.

o   Post-stack Multi-Trace Deconvolution.

o   Alternative Methods of Deconvolution.

o   Practical Considerations in Deconvolution.


Module Eight: Stacking, Filtering and Seismic Migration.

·       Stacking, Filtering and Display.

o   Common Midpoint Stacking.

o   Alternative Forms.

o   Trimmed Mean Stacking.

o   Coherence Stack.

o   Median Stack.

o   Velocity Filters.

o   The Two Dimensional Filter.

o   Pre-Stack Filtering.

o   Post-Stack Filtering.

o   Final Filtering.

o   Band Pass Filters.

o   Time Variant Filters.

o   Filter Panels.

o   Display.

o   Final Amplitude Manipulation.

o   Display Scales.

o   Polarity Conventions.

·       Seismic Migration.

o   Overview.

o   Migration Types.

o   Modes.

o   Effect of the Seismic Migration on the Geological Features.

o   Seismic Migration Methods.

o   Kirchhoff Migration.

o   Finite Difference Migration.

o   Fourier Transform Migration.

o   Depth Migration.

o   Kirchhoff Depth Migration.

o   Finite Difference Depth Migration.

o   Fourier Transform Depth Migration.

o   2D Versus 3D Migration.

o   Seismic Migration in Anisotropic Media.

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